Think-alouds are used to model comprehension processes such as making predictions, creating images, linking information in text with prior knowledge , monitoring comprehension, and overcoming problems with word recognition or comprehension Gunning By listening in as students think aloud, teachers can diagnose students' strengths and weakness.

### The Effect Of Think Alouds On Mathematical Reasoning

Asking students to use a strategy to solve complex problems and perform sophisticated tasks is not enough. Each strategy must be used analytically and may require trial-and-error reasoning. Thinking out loud allows teachers to model this complex process for students. For example, suppose during math class you'd like students to estimate the number of pencils in a school. Introduce the strategy by saying, "The strategy I am going to use today is estimation.

We use it to. It is useful because. When we estimate, we. Next say, "I am going to think aloud as I estimate the number of pencils in our school. I want you to listen and jot down my ideas and actions.

## Talking Out Loud Is Not the Same as Thinking Aloud

So, let me start by estimating the number of students in the building. Let's see. There are 5 grades; first grade, second grade, third grade, fourth grade, fifth grade, plus kindergarten. So, that makes 6 grades because 5 plus 1 equals 6. And there are 2 classes at each grade level, right? So, that makes 12 classes in all because 6 times 2 is Okay, now I have to figure out how many students in all.

Well, how many in this class? Okay, I'm going to assume that 15 is average. So, if there are 12 classes with 15 students in each class, that makes, let's see, if it were 10 classes it would be because 10 times 15 is Then 2 more classes would be 2 times 15, and 2 times 15 is 30, so I add 30 to and get So, there are about students in the school. I also have to add 12 to because the school has 12 teachers, and teachers use pencils, too. So that is people with pencils. Another option is to videotape the part of a lesson that models thinking aloud.

Students can watch the tape and figure out what the teacher did and why. Stop the tape periodically to discuss what they notice, what strategies were tried, and why, and whether they worked. As students discuss the process, jot down any important observations.

Once students are familiar with the strategy, include them in a think-aloud process. For example:. Teacher: "For science class, we need to figure out how much snow is going to fall this year.

How can we do that? How do we start?

- Economic Analysis of Institutional Change in Ancient Greece: Politics, Taxation and Rational Behaviour (Routledge Explorations in Economic History)!
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- MORE THAN A JOB, AN ADVENTURE.

What do we do next? How do we know if our estimate is close? How do we check it?

## Thinking Aloud with Three Voices

In schools where teachers work collaboratively in grade-level teams or learning communities, teachers can plan and rehearse thinking out loud with a partner before introducing the strategy to students. This is especially useful when the whole school is focusing on the same strategy, such as using learning logs or reflective journals in content area classes or applying fix-up strategies when reading informational and story texts.

In reciprocal think-alouds, students are paired with a partner. Student take turns thinking aloud as they read a difficult text, form a hypothesis in science , or compare opposing points of view in social studies. While the first student is thinking aloud, the second student listens and records what the first student says.

Then students change roles so that each partner has a chance to think aloud and to observe the process. Next, students reflect on the process together, sharing the things they tried and discussing what worked well for them and what didn't. As they write about their findings, they can start a mutual learning log that they can refer back to.

After students are comfortable with the think-aloud process, use the strategy as an assessment tool. As students think out loud through a problem-solving process, such as reflecting on the steps used to solve a problem in math, write what they say.

This allows you to observe which strategies students use. By analyzing the results, you can pinpoint the individual student's needs and provide appropriate instruction. Assign a task, such as solving a specific problem or reading a passage of text. Think Aloud requires readers to stop during their reading to think, reflect and discuss their process. Readers talk about skipping text, rereading, searching back in the text for information, questioning, clarifying, summarizing, making connections, reflecting, predicting and visualizing. During reading. The Think Aloud strategy encourages conversations about reading for understanding, giving you insight into how your students are processing texts.

By modeling, turning over responsibility to the student and observing her think aloud as she reads, you can identify what reading comprehension skills she has mastered and which she may need to develop. Think Aloud also fosters meta-cognition skills necessary for students to become successful independent readers.

English language learners Think Aloud is among the most effective strategies to use with English language learners. Connection to anti-bias education Think Aloud encourages students to describe their individual process for reading and connecting to the text. Teach This in a Learning Plan. X Add to an Existing Learning Plan.