The Augustan Age was the time of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, who imitated those first Augustans and even drew parallels between themselves and the first set. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, a poet, was prolific at this time and noted for challenging stereotypically female roles.
Daniel Defoe was also popular. Ideas such as neoclassicism, a critical and literary mode, and the Enlightenment, a particular worldview shared by many intellectuals, were championed during this age. The beginning date for the Romantic period is often debated. Some claim it is , immediately following the Age of Sensibility. American literature has its own Romantic period , but typically when one speaks of Romanticism, one is referring to this great and diverse age of British literature, perhaps the most popular and well-known of all literary ages.
There is also a minor period, also quite popular between — , called the Gothic era. It was a time of great social, religious, intellectual, and economic issues, heralded by the passage of the Reform Bill, which expanded voting rights.
A Brief Overview of British Literary Periods
This period is in strong contention with the Romantic period for being the most popular, influential, and prolific period in all of English and world literature. The Georgian period usually refers to the reign of George V — but sometimes also includes the reigns of the four successive Georges from — Here, we refer to the former description as it applies chronologically and covers, for example, the Georgian poets, such as Ralph Hodgson, John Masefield, W.
Davies, and Rupert Brooke. Georgian poetry today is typically considered to be the works of minor poets anthologized by Edward Marsh. The themes and subject matter tended to be rural or pastoral in nature, treated delicately and traditionally rather than with passion like was found in the previous periods or with experimentation as would be seen in the upcoming modern period.
The modern period traditionally applies to works written after the start of World War I. Common features include bold experimentation with subject matter, style, and form, encompassing narrative, verse, and drama. Forster, and Doris Lessing; the poets W.
English Poetry - 17th Century - Literary Criticism: Books
Yeats, T. Eliot, W. New Criticism also appeared at this time, led by the likes of Woolf, Eliot, William Empson, and others, which reinvigorated literary criticism in general. It is difficult to say whether modernism has ended, though we know that postmodernism has developed after and from it; for now, the genre remains ongoing.
The postmodern period begins about the time that World War II ended. Many believe it is a direct response to modernism. Some say the period ended about , but it is likely too soon to declare this period closed.
English literature - The 18th century | kythnumora.ga
Poststructuralist literary theory and criticism developed during this time. Lively, and Iain Banks. Many postmodern authors wrote during the modern period as well. Share Flipboard Email. Richer talents also played their part. Writers such as Defoe and Swift did not confine themselves to straightforward discursive techniques in their pamphleteering but experimented deftly with mock forms and invented personae to carry the attack home.
In doing so, both writers made sometimes mischievous use of the anonymity that was conventional at the time. Anonymity was to be an important creative resource for Defoe in his novels and for Swift in his prose satires. The avalanche of political writing whetted the contemporary appetite for reading matter generally and, in the increasing sophistication of its ironic and fictional maneuvers, assisted in preparing the way for the astonishing growth in popularity of narrative fiction during the subsequent decades.
It also helped fuel the other great new genre of the 18th century: periodical journalism. In a familiar, urbane style they tackled a great range of topics, from politics to fashion, from aesthetics to the development of commerce. They aligned themselves with those who wished to see a purification of manners after the laxity of the Restoration and wrote extensively, with descriptive and reformative intent, about social and family relations. Their political allegiances were Whig, and in their creation of Sir Roger de Coverley they painted a wry portrait of the landed Tory squire as likable, possessed of good qualities, but feckless and anachronistic.
Contrariwise, they spoke admiringly of the positive and honourable virtues bred by a healthy, and expansionist, mercantile community. The success with which Addison and Steele established the periodical essay as a prestigious form can be judged by the fact that they were to have more than imitators before the end of the century. The awareness of their society and curiosity about the way it was developing, which they encouraged in their eager and diverse readership, left its mark on much subsequent writing.
Later in the century other periodical forms developed.
One of its most prolific early contributors was the young Samuel Johnson. The practice and the status of criticism were transformed in mid-century by the Monthly Review founded and the Critical Review founded The latter was edited by Tobias Smollett. From this period the influence of reviews began to shape literary output, and writers began to acknowledge their importance.
Alexander Pope contributed to The Spectator and moved for a time in Addisonian circles; but from about onward, his more-influential friendships were with Tory intellectuals. His early verse shows a dazzling precocity, his An Essay on Criticism combining ambition of argument with great stylistic assurance and Windsor Forest achieving an ingenious, late-Stuart variation on the 17th-century mode of topographical poetry.
The mock-heroic The Rape of the Lock final version published in is an astonishing feat, marrying a rich range of literary allusiveness and a delicately ironic commentary upon the contemporary social world with a potent sense of suppressed energies threatening to break through the civilized veneer. It explores with great virtuosity the powers of the heroic couplet a pair of five-stress rhyming lines. His Iliad secured his reputation and made him a considerable sum of money.
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In this he was following a common Tory trend, epitomized most trenchantly by the writings of his friend, the politician Henry St.